Encapsulation in Java

Encapsulation means enclosing some items inside a capsule or tube tablet.

In OOPs, encapsulation means binding data members and methods inside a single unit.

It also acts as a security shield for datas.

Imagine you need water, can you take it directly from your neighbour's house without permission ?

No. Right?

You will ask the neighbour and he will take and give the water.

Encapsulation is also similar to the above scenario.

In encapsulation,

  • Variables and datas are hidden from other classes. We can access data from other class indirectly only through its defined getter functions if defined.

To achieve encapsulation,

  • We can set data or variables as private to restrict direct access from other classes.
  • We can define setter and getter methods as public to access the restricted variables or values if needed.


class Accounts{

private String email;

private String password;

public void setEmail(String email){



public void setPassword(String password){



public String getEmail(){

return email;



public class SignUp{

public static void main(String args[]){

Accounts account=new Accounts();

account.setEmail("[email protected]");


System.out.println(account.getEmail()+" is successfully signed up");



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[email protected] is successfully signed up

It helps in hiding internal details of a class.

It also helps in increasing readability of a program.

We can set read-only(only getters) and write-only(only setters) if needed.