Encapsulation in Java

Encapsulation means enclosing some items inside a capsule or tube tablet.

In OOPs, encapsulation means binding data members and methods inside a single unit.

It also acts as a security shield for datas.

Imagine you need water, can you take it directly from your neighbour's house without permission ?

No. Right?

You will ask the neighbour and he will take and give the water.

Encapsulation is also similar to the above scenario.

In encapsulation,

  • Variables and datas are hidden from other classes. We can access data from other class indirectly only through its defined getter functions if defined.

To achieve encapsulation,

  • We can set data or variables as private to restrict direct access from other classes.
  • We can define setter and getter methods as public to access the restricted variables or values if needed.

Example

class Accounts{

private String email;

private String password;

public void setEmail(String email){

this.email=email;

}

public void setPassword(String password){

this.password=password;

}

public String getEmail(){

return email;

}

}

public class SignUp{

public static void main(String args[]){

Accounts account=new Accounts();

account.setEmail("admin@programzools.com");

account.setPassword("56894");

System.out.println(account.getEmail()+" is successfully signed up");

}

}

Try In Editor

Output

admin@programzools.com is successfully signed up


It helps in hiding internal details of a class.

It also helps in increasing readability of a program.

We can set read-only(only getters) and write-only(only setters) if needed.