Access Modifiers in Java

Access modifiers are used to specify the accessibility for variables, methods, class or constructor.

Imagine as you are living in a house and another family is living nearby your house.

Can the other family come into your house and take anything without your permissions? No. Right?

Access specifiers are similar to permissions which specifies the accessibility between classes, methods, constructors and variables.

This is also called as access specifiers since it specifies access level.

Different types of access specifiers are

public

public keyword is used to specify the access level as public.

Example

public class Sun{}

public int number=5;

public void sunsets(){}

public Sun(){}

If we give a variable or a class or method as public, the corresponding variables or class or method can be accessed from anywhere in any class.

Example program

class Sun{

public Sun(){

System.out.println("Sun object is created");

}

public void sunrise(){

System.out.println("Sun Rises");

}

public void sunsets(){

System.out.println("Sun sets");

}

}

public class PublicTest{

public static void main(String args[]){

Sun s1=new Sun();

s1.sunrise();

s1.sunsets();

}

}

Try In Compiler

Output

Sun object is created

Sun Rises

Sun sets


public specified can be accessed

  • Within class and outside class
  • Within package and outside package

protected

protected keyword is used to specify the access level as protected.

Example

protected int number=5;

protected void teaching(){}

protected Teacher(){

If we give a variable or a class or method as protected, the corresponding variables or constructor or method can be accessed from any class within its package, but not outside the package.

Example program

package 1

package oldschool;

public class Teacher{

protected Teacher(){

System.out.println("Teacher teach us lesson");

}

}

package 2

package newschool;

import oldschool.Teacher;

public class Student{

public static void main(String args[]){

Teacher t1=new Teacher();

}

}

Output

error: Teacher() has protected access in Teacher


protected specified can be accessed

  • Within class and outside class within its package

protected specified cannot be accessed

  • outside its package

private

private keyword is used to specify the access level as private.

Example

private int number=5;

private void sleep(){}

private Doctor(){}

If we give a variable or a method or a constructor as private, the corresponding variables or constructor or method can be accessed only within its class, cannot be accessed outside class.

Example program

class Doctor{

private Doctor(){

System.out.println("Doctor is free");

}

}

public class PrivateTest{

public static void main(String args[]){

Doctor d1=new Doctor();

}

}

Try In Compiler

Output

error: Doctor() has private access in Doctor


private specified can be accessed

  • only within class

private specified cannot be accessed

  • outside its class
  • outside its package

default

If the access modifier is not specified in any case, it is considered as default access modifier.

It is similar to protected in which it allows access only within package and not outside package.

Example program

class Taxi{

void available(){

System.out.println("Taxi is available");

}

void booked(){

System.out.println("Taxi is booked");

}

}

public class InnerCity{

public static void main(String args[]){

Taxi t=new Taxi();

t.available();

}

}

Try In Compiler

Output

Taxi is available